It’s Tube Time

May 23, 2013

Welcome back to Andy’s Corner! Last week, we took a look at some small ways that you can tweak and improve your tone. This week we’re looking under the hood of your tube amp to take an overview of power tubes and how the various vacuum tubes that are used affect your tone.

The Tiny Backstory

The quick history: in the late 1800s, scientists were experimenting with gas-discharge and electrical-discharge tubes. Edison and Tesla are among some notable scientists who experimented with tube technology and helped lay the groundwork for the modern vacuum tube. The tube amp as we know it was popularized in the 30s and as we all know—guitarists took those things and ran with them, discovering that by pushing the tubes they could get a crazy new tone: overdrive! Rock and roll is born.


The Four Tube Groups

When you do the requisite research, you’ll notice that most of the popular tube amps on the market today use a few common tube types (each associated with a certain tone). The typical tubes in use today are:

EL84: This tube is most associated with the “Vox chime.”  It is used predominantly in Class A tube amps—where the amp runs all hot, all the time. The EL84 has sparkling highs and a crunchy midrange that responds very well to being pushed—just like in an AC30.

EL34: Marshall Stack. That is all. The EL34 is the wall-of-rock sound that we all grew up with—whether you grew up with Plexis or JCM800s, you grew up with EL34s. They are known for their ability to produce distortion at lower power, making them desirable and essential for amps that are chasing that full stack sound. Some players are experimenting with swapping out EL34s for KT77s or 6CA7s, often reporting that the 6CA7s offer a good cross between the EL34 and 6L6 tones.

6L6: The big, clean tone that Fender is known for comes from the 6L6. This tube is what gives the Twin and the Super Reverb their power, allowing rich full bass and sparkling highs. The tone of this tube is typically considered an “American” voiced tone, frequently used in Fender-styled combos and many more-modern American amps. KT66s are sometimes used as a replacement for the 6L6 with many players considering them to be the smoother overdrive of the two.

6V6: The 6V6 is the old timer of the group—known for providing that sweet tweed tone to smaller vintage combo amps from the 50s and 60s, such as the Fender Champ and the old Gibson GA-40. 6V6s fell out of favor (to be honest, they fell out of manufacturing) for many years and are currently experiencing a resurgence due being available on the market again.

Swapping Tubes

Changing your tubes can have a drastic affect on your tone. Even simply changing brands of tube can produce a stunning result in your amp. Unfortunately, the only way to know how a brand will sound in your amp is to: put those tubes in your amp. However, the good news is that most of us guitarists are die-hard tinkerers and you’ll probably have a lot of fun experimenting. You typically should not simply swap power tubes in and out—as most tubes are going to have unique or incompatible circuit/voltage/bias specs. We recommend always taking your amp to a pro, unless you are yourself a pro—manufacturing and quality-control variations across brands mean it’s safer for you and your amp to have a tech swap out the tubes and perform any necessary tweaking/biasing/re-wiring necessary to make the jump. If you’re simply replacing a tube with one of the same variety, we recommend handling the tube with a clean, dry cloth; finger oil residue on the tube can linger and create a hotspot, almost ensuring that tube will blow faster than others.  


As with any aspect of guitarland, your mileage may vary. There are a ton of manufacturers manufacturing a ton of different types of tubes that will yield: a TON of different tones in your amp. With plenty of resources available online, you can start to hone in on a few choices that might yield you an improvement in your stock tone. You’ll need to actually make the leap and get the tubes installed to know for sure, but when you arrive at that glorious moment when you hit a power chord and the sound you’ve been dreaming of comes right back at you—it’ll all be worth it.


One of the best resources online is YOU—if you’ve got anything to share about swapping tubes out, let us know in the comments and let’s discuss. Thanks for reading and see you next week!



  1. guitslinger says:

    I put a set of Groove Tubes EL-34s in my 1983 JCM 800 2204 stack about 15 years ago and despite lots of constant full-tilt-boogie Hendrix playing over the years they still contribute to the same brutal roar that they gave it when they were new-they even have improved over the years.

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 12:02 pm
  2. Nice Post! says:

    Great post this week PGS! I just so happened to swap in some nice GE 6L6’s into my power section and some 3 12ax7’s and one 12au7 in the pre of my Rickenbacker m16. Really improved the tone and the single 12au7 in the v4 helped to keep things loud and clean.

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 12:03 pm
  3. Mojave Johnson says:

    Mostly good and accurate, but…

    Although these four tube types are the most common, there are several other power tubes available, though I’m not aware of any manufacturers currently using them.  If you’re really a serious tone freak and are into vintage tones, you may be familiar with some of the amps made by Supro / National / Valco.  Most of you are probably NOT familiar with the names or amp models they made, but I’m sure EVERYONE reading this has head at least a few of them without knowing it.

    Although no one (except Jimmy himself, and he’s not talking) really knows exactly which amps Jimmy Page used on specific Led Zeppelin recordings, it is well known that he used many different models made by Supro / National / Valco.  Some of these were equipped with 6973 power tubes, which were rare in guitar amps, but fairly common in juke boxes.

    The 6973 power tube is a noval (9-pin) tube similar in size and pin number to an EL84, but has a much smoother, glassier sound and overdrive.  Any amp that is equipped with EL84’s can be easily converted to use 6973’s by a QUALIFIED amp tech.  However, because these tubes weren’t common, they are, unfortunately, pretty expensive to find today.  I’ve seen NOS 6973’s for over $70 EACH!!  Fortunately, these tubes are now being manufactured again, and are available at a more reasonable price (around $30-40 a pair), though the quality may not be as good as the NOS American made tubes.

    As for the comment in the article about there being “a ton of manufacturers manufacturing a ton of different types of tubes”, it’s simply not true.  The fact is, while there are a ton of companies out there selling tunes with their brand names on them, there are actually only a handful of tube manufacturers around the world.  Most of the companies selling tubes with their brand names stenciled on them are simply buying tubes from the actual manufacturer and rebranding them.  True, some of the resellers do test and match their tubes for their customers’ convenience, but that doesn’t make them a manufacturer.

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 12:18 pm
  4. Izzy Morris says:

    To clarify the above comment concerning the number of tube manufacturers around the world Mojave Johnson is correct; there are 3. New Sensor of Russia manufactures tubes that are branded as Electro-Harmonix, Sovtek, Svetlana, Mullard, Tung-Sol, SED, and Genelex Gold Lion. JJ Electronic (who are based out of the old Tesla factory in the Slovic Republic) manufacture their own tubes. Shuguang of China make Ruby and Penta brand tubes as well tubes for Groove Tubes. Groove tubes are worth mentioning in that they are NOT a manufacturer but a BRAND. GT’s are made by all three of the above companies. The three above companies are responsible for the current manufacture of 99% of all new tubes. Small companies like Western Electric of the U.S and Canada’s Northern Electric also make tubes but not anything that makes it into new production amps. If you’re really interested in tubes check out

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 1:08 pm
  5. Abbacus says:

    The cleanest, smoothest and just plain prettiest el84/6BQ5’s I’ve ever used are NOS, made in Holland, Amperex. Sadly, I have just one pair. A lot of decent tubes are being made again.  I’ve personally had poor results and bad luck with JJ’s and Ruby’s.

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 1:38 pm
  6. brizzle says:

    just got some nos tubes from these guys without any issues. Expensive but good.

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 1:41 pm
  7. George says:

    The tubes on my AC30 died just when they started to sing. It may be actually the reason they started singing, they were dying….......

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 2:00 pm
  8. William says:

    I’ve found putting a 12at7 or 12au7 in the first stage of the preamp of my amps is great for improving clean head room and overall “sparkle” in my tone.  Especially in Fender style amps.

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 2:15 pm
  9. Matt says:

    I’m pretty sure that photo in the article is of KT-88 tubes. KT-88s are my favorite! Great thick clean tone, takes pedals well, especially drive and distortion.

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 3:02 pm
  10. Spy says:

    “...guitarists took those things and ran with them, discovering that by pushing the tubes they could get a crazy new tone: overdrive! Rock and roll is born.” Yes, but you don’t say HOW or WHY this happened, and when were the first recordings of overdriven tones (Howlin’ Wolf’s “Moaning at Midnight” and Ike Turner’s “Rocket 88”), both from 1951). It mostly happened by accident because people had to turn their amps up in order to be heard above the screaming and ballroom noise. PAs were a luxury back then, broke down very frequently and were not powerful. And since transistors didn’t exist back then, tube amps were all they had. And they were overdriven easily when turned up. Tube overdrive and distortion was born.

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 7:05 pm
  11. Spy says:

    “Changing your tubes can have a drastic affect on your tone. Even simply changing brands of tube can produce a stunning result in your amp.” Er… absolutely not. I’ve done a lot of experimenting and the differences are small to barely audible (including the bias effect of “I-just-put-in-new-tubes”). And as far as hearing differences between for example 6L6s and EL84s, what you are REALLY hearing is differences in amps, speakers, tonestacks, transformers etc. and not differences in power tubes. Very common mistake. And finding an amp that can accept different power tube types will only reveal their differences regarding THAT particular amp and nothing else (again, they are very small).

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 7:09 pm
  12. Spy says:

    “If you’re simply replacing a tube with one of the same variety, we recommend handling the tube with a clean, dry cloth; finger oil residue on the tube can linger and create a hotspot, almost ensuring that tube will blow faster than others.” I’ve been doing that for years and never noticed anything like this. It’s a precaution but it doesn’t really change anything, as pretty much any roadie will tell you.

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 7:12 pm
  13. Larry Stoltenberg says:

    I’ve used JJs el84s in my USA-made Crate Palomin 16 and JJs 6V6s in my Egnater Tweaker 15 head.  Both sound great and my guitarist friend with Fender Blues Junior loves my Palomino.  Also good comments on the Egnater head through a Celestion cabinet.

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 11:12 pm
  14. warren says:

    Hi I own a Matrshall 1959 SLP   it uses EL34s and 12AX7s   can I change these to something else or am I stuck using the stock tubes , Amp came with Mullards , I do believe I have Solvek power tubes and JJ 12AX7s .
      What kind of a difference would I get using the 12At7 does anyone know . well thanks for helping out . nice article .

    posted on May 24, 2013 at 11:43 pm
  15. imreoir giotar says:

    Serendipitous article—nice intro and great user comments too. I hope you can talk about in a future article the differences in pre-amp and power amp design.

    posted on May 25, 2013 at 12:56 am
  16. Javier says:

    Sometimes tube swaping results are hard to tell (hear), if possible, but I remeber when I put 2 JJ 6V6s in my 57’ Deluxe reissue, they sounded “too powerfull” and with way too much bass for my taste, I ended up with a couple of vintage Tung Sols that sounded and worked sweetly.
    I also tryed an old 12AY7 in the first tube socket of my ex-Blues Junior and liked the overall sound/character quite better than the 12AX7 it came with, and not just because it cleaned up. Thats a case of changing type of tube, but it’s worth noting ‘cause it’s a very popular amp.

    posted on May 25, 2013 at 10:26 am
  17. Steve Bolt says:

    Been using EH 6CA7’s and EH 12ax7’s in my Jubilee 2555 with good results. But may try JJ’s next time around.

    posted on May 25, 2013 at 1:57 pm
  18. Cat MacKinnon says:

    good quick primer, but i’d like to hear more about some of the lesser-used tubes, specifically the KT series. i’m a big fan of Geordie Walker (Killing Joke), and a lot of his sound comes from his old Burman amps, which used either KT-77’s or KT-88’s (i can’t remember which off hand.) also like to hear about the massive KT-120’s, although i’m not sure if those are used in guitar amps or not.

    posted on May 25, 2013 at 8:48 pm
  19. Antwang says:

    Actually, I think it was Paul Burlison during the Johnny Burnette sessions whom accidentally achieved that overdrive/fuzz sound due to a loose tube in his amp! Honey Hush!

    posted on May 25, 2013 at 10:11 pm
  20. Shane says:

    I have put Winged C power tubes in my Fender Hot Rod Deluxe.  Some say this is the best power tube on the market today. They brought the sparkle and punch back to it. I also put a complete set of JJ tubes in my Marshall and it turned it into a much better sounding amp.  I would recomend JJ’s any day.
    Anytime power tubes are replaced they need to be matched pairs/quads and biased properly.

    posted on May 26, 2013 at 6:49 am
  21. Roger W. says:

    I gradually switched all my amps to JJ branded tube and gradually they all failed. I’ve had amps with the same tubes for 20+ years and as soon as I switched to JJ’s they failed within a year. Just a cautionary tale.

    posted on May 28, 2013 at 3:34 am
  22. Greg says:

    Nice topic Andy and although you didn’t really go into preamp tubes and their subtle effect on your amps tone I thought I would chime in and answer Warrens question about changing out his 12ax7’s,  I have heard that SRV changed out his 12ax7’s for 5751’s for a smoother less shrill high end tone as they are a direct replacement pin wise the same with 12at7’s you should try them both to see which you like better and remember to always buy matched pairs when changing out tubes.

    posted on May 28, 2013 at 3:49 am
  23. david nouis says:

    nothing on rectifier tubes or preamp? its not a real tube amp if it has a ss rectifier

    posted on May 28, 2013 at 4:55 am
  24. Ken says:

    Tubes and more has a great web page that discusses the differences in 12AX7 preamp tubes.
    Swapping these out on the front end can change your tone, although to a lesser extent than the output tubes. Here’s a link:

    posted on May 28, 2013 at 9:11 am
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    posted on May 28, 2013 at 12:59 pm
  26. Steve says:

    This was a great primer on POWER TUBES, and that was what was promised in the article, not a complete book on tubes and their applications, so give the author a break.  I have been working with tubes in amplifiers and other circuits since the 1950’s, and I can tell you that in today’s world, without the “quality” of what was once American manufacturers of tubes, you have to be careful what you buy.  NOS GE, RCA and other American tubes are always a good bet, if bought from a reputable dealer (like The Tube Store).  I personally tend to use Groove Tubes in all repairs and refurbishments that I work on.  They are more expensive, but Aspen Pitman, when he established GT, set a very high standard in testing tubes that he imported from the overseas manufacturers.  They are tested under load, and graded appropriately.  When you buy a matched set (2 or 4 tubes) you can be assured they are really matched.  Also, GT provides various grading specifications so you can get tubes that will provide the type of tube tone you are looking for.  Aspen sold the company a couple of years ago to Fender, but at least the same staff and standards have been maintained.  For the person who said they can’t hear the difference between brands/types of tubes, I have concerns about his hearing.  He should probably have his ears tested, as the difference between tubes, of both manufacturers and types, is distinctive.  If it wasn’t, there would not be the market there is for these companies.

    posted on May 28, 2013 at 1:51 pm
  27. Ken says:

    Steve, Coming from an audiophile background I know that it sometimes takes practice to hear the difference between different devices. Part of it is understanding what you’re listening for. For instance, I visited my friends speaker shop. They built thie own speakers and sold high end amplifiers along with them. They were auditioning a pair of Focal Eggs and comparing them to a pair of 8” two ways of their own design. Te two ways had a much wider frequency response, but far less detail. Perhaps that’s like the differences you are hearing in the different brands of tubes. With a description of what you are listening for we may all be able to train our ears to do the same. Thanks!

    posted on May 28, 2013 at 2:24 pm
  28. Cat MacKinnon says:

    QUOTE: “david nouis says:
    nothing on rectifier tubes or preamp? its not a real tube amp if it has a ss rectifier”

    oh please, that’s utter rubbish. the majority of amps from Fender, Marshall, Hiwatt, Orange and MANY others have used SS rectifiers for decades. saying that an amp isn’t a “real” tube amp if it uses an SS rectifier is basically saying that the overwhelmning majority of the most famous and revered tube amps ever made are worthless…and that’s obviously not the case.

    posted on May 28, 2013 at 5:51 pm
  29. Will says:

    Don’t forget that the big capacitors in valve amps hold up to 600 volts in their aluminium cans! Charge can hang around for a long time after the amp is unplugged from the wall. Don’t go poking around inside your amp unless you really know what you are doing. If you must poke, use only one hand, so that if, and when you get zapped, it won’t go through your heart. Those caps will melt your screwdriver if you short them out, or you for that matter. Great tone is a wonderful thing, but not much value if you electrocute your self in the process. Stick to putting new strings on your guitar.

    posted on May 28, 2013 at 6:14 pm
  30. Jonas says:

    A shame the list is slightly over generalised and as such a seed for missunderstandings. The EL84 may be used in lower power Voxes, but were also used in Marshalls and God knows what. Higher power Voxes also use EL34s and compatibles, as are Hiwatts, Oranges…

    It’s somewhat similar with the 6V6 and 6L6 valves but with US brands. Then of course those early Marshalls also were tetrodes and not pentodes… 5881s first, KT66s second.

    And no mentioning of the 6550 or KT88…?

    posted on May 29, 2013 at 4:27 am
  31. Jimmy D says:

    I picked up an Egnator Tweaker in January. Someone on TDPRI contacted Egnator on what tubes can be substituted for stock. They said, “If it fits it will work. All cathode byass.”. It comes with Ruby 6v6’s. I replaced them with JJ 6L6’s. What a difference. I like my amps on the clean side & use pedals. The 6L6’s really gave me the headroom I love. Sounds great on the AC & Brit modes too.

    posted on May 29, 2013 at 12:47 pm
  32. TJ N says:

    I love 5881’s for a nice even balance to the EL34 Crunch…

    posted on May 31, 2013 at 4:45 am
  33. David says:

    “in the late 1800s, scientists were experimenting with gas-discharge and electrical-discharge tubes. Edison and Tesla are among some notable scientists who experimented with tube technology and helped lay the groundwork for the modern vacuum tube. “

    The actual facts behind the vacuum tube are even more fascinating. Edison was working on the incandescent light bulb. because he could not pull a hard vacuum, the filament would smoke and leave soot at the top of the bulb. To stop the soot from accumulating on the glass, he placed a small metal disk suspended by a wire out the top of the bulb. The soot accumulated on that.

    In seeing how the soot stuck to the plate, he decided to attach a meter to the wire, and noticed that current was flowing from the disk. But it only flowed in one direction.

    Thus was born the diode, and the triode, et al, followed suit.

    So it was all just an accidental discovery because he didn’t want the glass to get dirty in the light bulb!

    posted on May 31, 2013 at 9:59 am
  34. Ken says:

    Thanks David. By the way, isn’t the light bulb just a vacuum tube resistor?

    posted on May 31, 2013 at 10:03 am
  35. David Schwab says:

    Well it is a vacuum tube, and it has a filament, but it doesn’t have any plates or screens, and the filament gets a lot hotter. It can’t amplify anything. It just lights up.

    posted on May 31, 2013 at 10:33 am
  36. charles says:

    mojave johnson,thank you so much for your post.

    posted on June 8, 2013 at 11:01 am
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  46. paul r jacobs says:

    I began working on guitar amps not long after getting my first $25 Fender Bandmaster back in 1982. My dad was an electronics engineer and inventor so he helped me rewire it for triode operation, helped me put a master volume on it, and most of all taught me to not destroy the amps originality by not drilling a bunch of holes in the chassis in view on the front face/ rear plates. Groove Tubes was offering matched sets then and so my dad taught me how to grade the tubes on the tube testers he had around the shop. You could still find cheap NOS tubes then. I was very happy with Sylvania and GE tube for the Fender Bandmaster, and of course the Telefunkens were amazing in the Sound City 120R. Now I did live in Hollywood,CA in the 80’s and Frank Levi III was my room mate for a while. He was rebuilding and modding amps for Ratt, Billy Squire,Aerosmith, and a couple of his Marshall mods ended up on the Guns and Roses albums. It was ironic that we would be room mates before I even knew he modded amps because that was a passion of mine too. I was still rather green though and did ruin a nice early tube Vox Pathfinder trying to figure things out. Then with Franks help and a set of 1950 Army Electronics manuals ( all tube) I became more adept. Again it was the 80’s and we all wanted our heads to sound like Mesa Boogies and Marshalls. Looking back I have mixed feelings about the fact that I gutted my Sound City 120R and rebuilt it from the transformers and tubes up, into a Marshall by using the 1969 and 1971 schematics. The BEST MASTER VOLUME for these high powered amps was the PHASE INVERTER MV MOD using 2 identical value capacitors as the pair on the phase inverter, lift the output side, run up to the PIN 1’s respectfully for each side, then follow that path back down to where they were lifted via the potentiometers PIN 2’s, but putting your ‘new’ pair of capacitors in between the pin 2’s and that spot. Then Pin 3’s you just send to a good ground. THAT’S IT! So anyway, I installed this on my Sound City 120R, my Sound City 50 watt head, and my band mates AMPEG V4 head.
    I did come up with many excellent sounding circuits back then.Amp modding can be as addictive as playing music itself. Well, because toneheads know that the amplifier is as much an instrument as the guitar or organ playing through it.
    My second amp was a $250 SOUND CITY 120R head from 73’ that was 100% original. God I still smell the inside of that Sound City. It was only 9 years old, but to my 16 year old self that was an eternity.
    Right now I am modding an old Thomas TL-1 organ amp. I DO NOT advocate gutting organs for tube amp projects!! I just happen to be given the amp. However, for the past few years I have been playing organ again, and collecting HAMMOND, WURLITZER, CONN, and GULBRANSEN. These organs are endangered. Once they are gone there will be no more so PLEASE NEVER NEVER NEVER DESTROY THE FOLLOWING MODELS. They are all the top models no less worthy than your favorite guitar and amp.


    WURLITZER- ELECTROSTATIC REED [ reeds are NOT used acoustically, but zapped by 300V and the resulting flow of electrons moving in and out of the reed find the potential to ground via a path set up by a screw head in proximity to a portion of the reed. A pick-up in one spot is more FLUTE sounding, in another more STRING, and in another more REED ( which in organs the ‘reed’ voice title accounts for brass as well as woodwind.] The flute on a WUrlitzer electrostatic reed organ is rich and majestic and bold and smoother than Hammond, and as you might know the Hammond tone wheel organ is ALL FLUTE, whereas the Wurlitzer electrostatic reed is a FLUTE, REED, and STRING organ.

    Like the Hammond B3’s ( and all of the other great Hammond tone wheel models) the Wurlitzer electrostatic reed models will last hundreds of years with simple capacitor and tube changes.
    For a better description see- NORTH SUBURBAN HAMMOND ORGAN SOCIETY, ARTICLE- WURLI 4600
    To hear these Wurlitzer electrostatic reed models check out KEN GRIFFIN ANNIVERSARY SONGS, and I posted a video playing my 4410 ( the spinet version of the 4600) on Youtube, just look for title- WURLITZER 4410 ELECTROSTATIC REED ORGAN

    ‘CLASSIC’ 800-830, ‘ARTISTE’ 700-720, MINUET 500 series, CAPRICE 400 series

    GULBRANSEN- ANY MODEL WITH A TUBE AMPLIFIER IN IT. NEVER NEVER NEVER DESTROY A GULBRANSEN RIALTO K. It was the first ELECTRONIC THEATER ORGAN ever built and was what many consider to be the best. Sort of like the Hammond story- the worlds first electric organ, and the best!

    posted on October 25, 2015 at 4:50 pm

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