ProGuitarShop

Pickups Explained:  Active vs. Passive

June 22, 2010

Most guitar players are familiar with passive pickups, the original pickup design that involves thousands of winds of thin wire and produces tones from jazz to rock. However, there’s a whole other technology out there that many guitarists either love or hate, for whatever reason. I’m of course talking about active pickups, those “9v battery required” guitars. Contrary to popular belief, active pickups weren’t designed primarily for skull inlayed guitars!  There are quite a few advantages to active pickups in both sound and performance that I think is worth looking into.

Key advantages of active pickups

The initial output of active pickups is quite low, but since active pickups rely on a preamp of sorts to boost the signal, some advantages spring up. Magnetic fields surrounding a traditional passive pickup are quite high, resulting in string pull that may negatively affect sustain and tone. Since active pickups are designed with weaker magnets, they will have more sustain by letting the string vibrate freely. Freakish overtones that come from placing your pickups too high will also disappear.

Have you ever noticed your humbuckers change tone when all you do is roll back the volume? Active pickups are virtually immune to this problem as stated on EMG’s site, “Unlike a traditional passive volume/tone system, the low-impedance EMG system lets you turn down the volume with very little effect on the tone, so you won’t sound muffled when you back off .” The key to this statement is LOW Impedance. Most of the benefits of active pickups revolve around the benefits of low impedance versus a traditional high impedance guitar output signal. You may already know that a Les Paul style guitar will have pots as high as 500k or a Strat style single coil guitar using 250k pots for volume and tone. But with active pickups, you will take it down to as low as 25k for EMG pickups and  Duncan Blackouts for example. One reason for the low value is to keep these lightly wound pickups from sounding too trebly and to maintain a low resistance/impedance.

As a side note, I have found that you can remedy the roll back issue with passives by using a “treble bleed mod.” Just solder in a capacitor to your volume pot (usually a .001 cap) and retain more treble as you roll back the volume.  But I digress, there are other benefits to Low Z pickups than just a transparent volume taper. Think about all the benefits of a quality buffer and you have your answer.  Longer cables can be used without high frequency loss, especially useful on stage or with a complicated pedalboard setup.  Also, active pickups are often converting to a balanced signal, which takes your guitar or bass to the same low noise environment as pro audio gear. Less hum and low radio interference make low impedance pickups ideal for pristine recording and wireless setups.

Let’s take a break and hear a raw and clean example of active pickups vs. passive. A Schecter Solo 6 Hellraiser is loaded with EMG 81/89 while our Les Paul has a Duncan ‘59/JB. The clips start using the neck pu and end with the bridge. I think they pretty much speak for themselves but notice how midrangey the JB gets at the end while the actives have that acoustic/electric sizzle.

Clean Active Sound Example

Clean Passive Sound Example

Ever notice how bass players seem to embrace active pickups more than guitarists? It may be the low noise factor but most importantly it comes from the flat, clean signal they offer. Remember the fact that actives don’t get the same amount of winds on a bobbin as passives do. As you over wind a pickup, the output is louder but the tone is darker. The excited signal produces a wider range of low, mid, and high frequencies that is amplified and sent out distortion free, a bassist dream! The snap and increased sustain that comes from active pickups as well as increased headroom is ideal for slap happy players. However, this wider frequency response provides the ideal canvas for metal guitarists. If you want to pile on the distortion, you want two things as your foundation: a low noise signal and a crystal clear tone. This way, dropped tunings and high speed shredding will remain articulate with a sharp attack as opposed to muddy and undistinguished

Difference in construction

Zakk Wylde Pickups

The classic EMG 81 uses a ceramic magnet to provide it’s sharp punch regardless of how dirty the signal. However, pickup designs such as the EMG 85 use Alnico V magnets for the same reasons as vintage pups, a warmer tone. Also, Duncan Livewires try to get closer to the sounds we know and love like the ’59 and JB by using the same resonant frequency. In theory, this gives you all the benefits of both worlds. Although I haven’t tried Livewires in anything other than the Dean Mustaine axe, they seemed promising with their vintage voicing.

Active can also come in different forms. Take for example the active midboost circuit commonly used for Clapton’s woman tone. Installing this simple battery powered preamp in a Strat let’s you boost midrange and gain for that fat humbucker like tone with the single coil spank intact. It also apparently converts the impedance from high to low, as evident by the changing of the volume pot from 250k to 50k.  This seems like a nice compromise between vintage and modern to me, especially if you want to preserve those classic tones.

Active pickups do have their perks as do passive. The question is which one sounds good to you.  Personally, I’m going to look into the Lace Alumitone, which I stumbled upon in my research. They are passive but have a huge frequency range and use 95% less wire than a normal pickup. Oh yeah, their output only measures 2.5k but they are loud and lightweight to boot. Confused? Yes I am.

See you next time in the corner,
Andy

Comments

  1. TesserId says:

    Lace does a fair job of explaining their innovative electro-magnetic designs, though my hungry technical mind is still left wanting.  The Jeff Lace article “Wound For Tone” (http://www.lacemusic.com/electric_pickups/alumitone/alumitone_article.php) explains that these pickups consist of an aluminum frame that acts as a primary, single turn of coil.  Normally, we wouldn’t expect much of anything from a single turn of anything, but I can barely begin to imagine what wondrous and mysterious interactions this aluminum frame has with the tiny voicing coils (the coils that account for that 2.5k impedance).  The fact that these low impedance pickups work at all shows the level of electrical engineering wizardry Jeff Lace works at.  Very intriguing.

    So, I am looking forward to hearing what you have to say about the Alumitone pickups, and I would really like to know what considerations there might be for the electronics that work with them.  Thanks for the article.

    posted on June 22, 2010 at 9:33 pm
  2. Jon says:

    Great article as always Andy, just added this blog to the Guitar Noize favourite sites list (sitewide)

    Cheers
    Jon

    posted on June 29, 2010 at 9:10 am
  3. Peter says:

    Very illuminating. I’m also interested in these Q-tuner pickups… http://www.q-tuner.com/index.shtml they’re passive too but use neod. magnets… and look pretty sweet to boot.

    posted on June 29, 2010 at 9:42 am
  4. moucon says:

    I dunno.  I played a lot of passive Gibsons and Fenders and etc… and still do.  But life changed forever on live gigs when I started playing an active G and L F100 II (the II is the active model) clear back in the ‘80s.  For a pure blues/rock “tone” player - it would probably suck.  But I needed to be able to quickly mimic a lot of different guitars without changing axes a lot onstage… we were doing production sets and there was no time. Strat/les paul/ gretch… I could cop all of them and more.  Plus it has active treble/bass control,  no loss when you switch between SC/HB ... no change in tone when you roll off the volume… etc etc.  No loss going into a pedalboard with a lot of boxes on it - and best of all -NO NOISE.  No buzz, no hiss, no nothing.  Dead silence.  To the listener that’s a lot more professional.  Now the downside -the clean tones are a home run but the dirt sounds are def. more sterile feeling.  That said, the guitar had plenty of punch and crunch when needed.

    posted on June 29, 2010 at 12:19 pm
  5. Bill says:

    Hi Andy. I enjoyed your comments on active pickups. I have found something that suits me very well - born out of a chance comment from someone who sold me a guitar on Ebay years ago ‘I wouldn’t use anything other than an active pickup’.
    After investigating this I tried out an active treble/mid/bass boost circuit and quickly converted all my guitars.
    I’m of the old school - guitar - wire - valve amp (maybe a few wet effects) and the boosts allow me to overdrive the amps to their limits while allowing roll off to clean.
    I don’t know enough to tell you if it affects the tone of my guitars or their lovely pickups (mostly Bareknucles) but it sure sounds good to me and contrary to what I had expected I can get a lovely complex shimmering clean as well as great driven rock sounds.
    Its worth a try - Fantastic flexibilty in gigs and all aboard my guitars. Five knobs: blend pot/ volume / treble/mid/ bass - easy peasy.
    The boost circuits come in at around £30 in England.  Kind regards, Bill

    posted on June 29, 2010 at 7:45 pm
  6. Charles says:

    Great article once again! Another cool pickup topic would be peizo pickups and their great clean tones.

    posted on June 29, 2010 at 8:32 pm
  7. Eric. C. says:

    Great Article Andy!! I look forward to these as I always learn something new!! Great Job!! Thanks Again!!

    posted on June 29, 2010 at 9:13 pm
  8. Zach says:

    I currently rock a pair of Gibson modern clssics in my Les Pual Studio (490R & 498T), but i might try those livewires now. I have always thought that actives = metal. Maybe i was wrong? Also, i would really like to hear about those alumitones! I really enjoy these articles! Thanks for the insight.

    posted on June 30, 2010 at 3:15 am
  9. dating advice says:

    Hey there thanks for the quality post, i had a good read. :)

    posted on November 3, 2010 at 6:09 am
  10. MLM Distributor says:

    Darn, Wylde is without a doubt a f-ing great guitar player.  My very own buddy in law kept telling me personally I needed to search him up in Facebook and shit is outstanding

    posted on July 5, 2011 at 12:44 am
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