ProGuitarShop

Power Tube Tone

June 8, 2011

Hi folks.  Welcome back to the Corner.  This week we’ll be discussing an important factor in tube amplifier tone.  Power tubes!  The tonal characteristics, breakup quality, headroom, and output capabilities all play a part in how a tube sounds which in turn plays a big part in how an amplifier sounds.  We’re going to be talking about the 4 most common power tubes found in guitar amplifiers; 6L6, EL34, 6V6, and EL84.  There are others out there like the KT66 or KT88 but understanding the basic four will lead to understanding some of the not so common ones.

 

The Power Section

 

We’ll start with a quick rundown (recap for some) of a tube guitar amplifier.  Guitar amps can be divided into three major sections, the preamp, the power amp, and the power supply.  From our earlier discussion on rectifiers, you already know that something as simple as a voltage converting tube in the power supply can have a rather noticeable effect on the tone.  Same with the preamp, from our discussion of the magical V1 tube, you know that the preamp tubes can have a rather more noticeable effect on the overall tone.  Now we get to the power tubes.  These tubes not only amplify the signal from the preamp, they have their own distortion and tonal characteristics.  In my opinion, the power tubes play the largest part in voicing an amplifier.  The power tube types defined the “American” and “British” tonality as much as the span of water between the two countries.

Think of it like this, most higher gain amplifiers have a control for gain that increases the amount of distortion on the channel.  This in turn is regulated by the master volume in order to give the user control over the overall volume.  This allows for overdrive and distortion at low volumes.  The distortion you’re hearing is from saturating one or more preamp tubes with signal (or cascading them) until they distort.  This distortion will probably tend to sound a bit fuzzy (depending on the amp) or grainy and has very little dynamic response.  You’ll also notice as you raise the master volume the amp will come to life and the tone will “fill out” in the frequency spectrum as well as gaining some dynamic response.  This is from the power tubes.

Now let’s take a Deluxe Reverb, 22 watts of classic “American clean tone” right? But raise the volume to about 5 or 6 and you will hear distortion from the amplifier which sounds quite different from your overdrive pedal.  You’ll notice more overtones, a full, rich drive tone, and dynamics that respond to touch and the volume knob on your guitar.  These are the characteristics of power tube distortion.  When a power tube breaks up it seems to be more of a slight compression characteristic as the tube overdrives.  Keep in mind, part of the distortion in this example is generated by the preamp as well and the combination of the two is part of the magic!

The power tube is one of the final steps in the amplifier tone equation, right before the output transformer.  Various types of power tubes used in the amp have a large determining factor in its overall tonality.  Keep in mind, the overall tone of an amp is the sum of its parts, the power tubes play their part but the preamp and tone section, power supply, and speakers all add up to final product.  The power tubes don’t do it on their own.  So let’s talk power tubes shall we?

 

The 6L6

 

The 6L6 tube is very common in American amplifiers and some think it has defined the “California” tone.  They are very common in Fender amplifiers as well as Mesa Boogie and others.  Of the four tubes we are discussing the 6L6 has the highest headroom of the lot, needing to be pushed the hardest to overdrive.  6L6’s are capable of producing up to 30 watts depending on the amp design.  I have seen small, single 6L6 driven amps rated at 15 watts clean (max volume and saturation was somewhere in the neighborhood of 22 watts) as well as a pair of 6L6’s putting out 60 watts (Hot Rod DeVille) so there is quite a range of power that can be had from these.

6L6

To me, the 6L6 tends to have a large bottom end that is boomy and tubby and beautiful.  As the tube compresses and saturates the bottom tightens up a bit (depending on rectifier type).  The top end can be best described as sparkle.  The 6L6 is a fairly bright tube with chimey top end that may need a little taming.  The big low end and bright top makes the 6L6 seem like it has a midrange “scoop” to it and this characteristic is most easily heard in a Fender amp such as a Twin Reverb, Vibrolux, or Blues Deluxe.  This is the classic “Fender chime” that you always hear about.  While it has great headroom, the 6L6 is magical when it saturates with an even compression and a very “vintage” low end sponginess.  The mids and lows come together nicely with a bit of extended highs making the overdriven tone somewhat “hard” and bright.

 

The 6V6

 

The 6V6 came about shorter after the 6L6 in the late 1930’s.  This “little brother” tube requires less input power and did not require an expensive, large power supply to run it.  This coupled with the lower output power (roughly 7-12 watts) made it the perfect tube to implement in “student” model amplifiers such as the Fender Champ and Princeton.

6v6SD

To me the 6V6, while having a lower output than the 6L6, has some similar traits.  There is the big low end and sparkling top but the lows are a bit tighter and more controllable and the highs are smoother with less of that spiky harshness.  I also hear a more present midrange in the 6V6 making it seem to be a very balanced tube tonally.  When clean I still hear a lot of sparkle but less of a “scoop” and when overdriven I hear a smooth distortion with a very even balance of highs, mids, and lows as well as a softer attack and smoother highs than the 6L6.  While different than the 6L6, the 6V6 is also considered an “American” sound by some.

 

The EL34

 

The EL34 was originated by Mullard in 1953.  Up there with the 6L6 in output power (11-30 watts I believe) the most common EL34 based guitar amplifiers will have either a pair or a quad run in a push/pull circuit for a total output of 50 watts or 100 watts respectively.  The EL34 is considered by some to be a mainstay of the “British big amp” tone.  This is probably due to their popularity in Marshall amplifiers.

EL34

The EL34 is a different animal than the 6L6 or 6V6 tonally.   To me I hear a tighter but present low end.  Not as room filling or round as the 6’s but present nonetheless.  In the highs I hear a smooth tone with lots of clarity but not as much sparkle.  The midrange is where these tubes really impress me.  Midrange content is full and rich but not overpowering. I find that it blends perfectly with a guitar’s frequencies to make a harmonically rich tone that, to me, doesn’t sound like a “hump” in the midrange as much as a well balanced tone that will cut through a mix nicely for lead work.  When overdriven, I hear the EL34 compress and scream with singing sustain that I believe is partially due to the dynamic midrange content.  EL34’s seem to be right at home when pushed past the threshold into distortion and are a lovely tube for high gain applications.

 

The EL84

 

The EL84 is the most abused tube in the industry but also seems to be a favorite of many guitarists and amp builders.  I believe the maximum plate rating of an EL84 is 300 volts for an output of 17 watts however many amplifiers will have the EL84 running above 400 volts.  These tubes really like to run hot and since they are commonly run outside their specified limits, they tend to not last as long.  Fortunately, in comparison with the others we’re discussing, they are the least expensive.

The EL84

The EL84 is the basis of the “Leeds” tone.  Vox has given the EL84 a signature tone that has a tight low end, chimey top, and extended midrange response that sizzles and screams when overdriven.  Cleans are bright and springy while the distortion tends more toward the midrange “hump” with a tight low end and sizzling top.  Most EL84 amps will cut through a mix like a knife.  Since the trend toward low wattage guitar amps, a lot of builders have turned to the EL84 making it a commonly found tube. Check out a VOX AC30 for classic EL84 tone.

 

The Lowdown

 

So we’ve covered the four most commonly found guitar amp power tubes.  There are many more and variants of these four out there but these have formed somewhat of a basis of comparison for other power tubes.  Keep in mind, the power tube does not determine the entire tone or “flavor” of the amplifier.  The preamp, tone section, transformers, speakers, and everything else used to build a guitar amp (don’t you know that red Tolex sounds different than black?) all factor into the final equation but hopefully this will provide a sort of guide post if you’re thinking about a different style amplifier or just wanting to know more about the amps you already have.  This is also a subjective article based on what I hear and others will hear things differently.  For those of you that own an amplifier such as a THD Univalve, try all the tubes you can and see what you hear.  Thanks for reading folks and we’ll see you next time, in the Corner.

 

Comments

  1. Nathan says:

    I agree with the assertion that, ”power tubes play the largest part in voicing an amplifier”. I would even take that one step further and say that the make and quality of the power tube within the same type can make a difference in tone. For the player on a budget wishing to tweak their sound with the current equipment they have, tubes can be a relatively simple, affordable, yet effective move towards better tone. In my case, I took a Blues Junior III and switched out all the stock tubes with Genalex Gold Lion reissues just two months after I purchased the amp. The difference is huge, at least to my ears. For the price and ease of installing, it was well worth it.

    posted on June 8, 2011 at 10:01 am
  2. Jeff Thomas says:

    A great informative article from your site I like to read these as they offer real advice thats solid not just opinion. I tend to steer clear of opening up my amp and fiddling I use a Carvin Belair 212 and I am aware of the serious Hi Voltage these amps have on board even when turned off, as Im no expert I dont want to end up dead through fiddling. I’d rather pay an expert technichian than risk my life. However I would like sound advice on tube mods as I have heard a new set of matched tubes can bring an amp to life. Its much like cheap guitars a few new pickups can transform the instrument I guess tubes are like this the fine tuning you can do that the manbufacturer did not to save the cost of the product rising out of control. I still feel that to me as a electronics idiot that messing with the kid would = jack u dead lol

    posted on June 8, 2011 at 9:25 pm
  3. Steve Dallman says:

    Much of the touted “power tube overdrive” is simply the phase inverter being overdriven and then the power tubes amplify that overdriven PI. Even when the power tubes are driven to breakup, the PI distortion masks much of that.

    I modded a Bassman 100 into a channel switching guitar amp, with a pair of 6L6’s being used for the clean channel and a pair of EL34’s for the distortion channel, with the ability to swap the pairs with a flick of a switch. I was surprised to hear little to no difference when swapping the power tubes, with either the clean or distortion channel. Until the power section was pushed into breakup (extremely loud considering the voltages and amount of iron in this amp), the tube tonal differences were minimal to non-existent. When overdriven, the tonal differences were still minor even after trying different varieties and brands of power tubes.

    posted on June 8, 2011 at 9:42 pm
  4. Jimmy Keys says:

    A brilliant article there Andy. I’ve always wondered what the tonal differences between valves were. A big thanks for clearing it up! How does a KT66 compare to a 6l6 and a KT88 to 6550?

    posted on June 8, 2011 at 10:07 pm
  5. Wayne Kirby says:

    +1 on the power tubes playing a major, maybe THE major factor in an amp’s tone.  I use a Bassman 10 (I’m converting 1 channel into a Super Reverb circuit-without the reverb).  I took it to a friend’s house who had LOTS of tubes he had salvaged from old organs & guitar amps.  We started with V1 & went thru the whole amp, swapping tubes till we came up with the best combination of what he had, re-biased, etc.  The change was AMAZING. Later, we did the same with my Hot Rod Deluxe.  Not quite as big of a difference, but still a major improvement.  I had previously installed a full set of JJ tubes in the HRD, and they DID help the sound a lot, but the change to the “vintage” tubes was almost night & day.  I’m very fortunate to have such good friends!

    posted on June 8, 2011 at 10:19 pm
  6. Singlemalt says:

    Andy, you have the ability to cut things down to the bone. In a few paragraphs, you’ve summed up what some have taken entire books to say.

    posted on June 8, 2011 at 10:24 pm
  7. Geno Becker says:

    I agree the tone of an amp is due to the sum of its parts, and that the various types of power tubes do have their individual voices.  However, I tend to think the V1 preamp tube is the key to the amp’s overall tone, while the power tube and rectifier type play the major parts of how the amp responds and “feels” to the player (firmness, sponginess, sustain, etc.). 

    An amp’s responsiveness is something only the player experiences, while listeners only enjoy the tonal results.  But feel is important because it allows the player to be more expressive in the delivery of the music. 

    The beauty of playing an ultra-responsive amplifier cannot be described; it has to be experienced.

    posted on June 8, 2011 at 11:16 pm
  8. John Duffy says:

    Thanks for bringing all these tubes together. I’ve heard various versions of this comparrison before but never in one readable package like this. I never really knew the beauty of power amp saturation until I started giggin. For years I’ve had an old Fender Bassman that sounds very nice when clean, but had trouble finding a stompbox for good distortion tones. So I ended up learning how to build stompboxes. This got me a little closer, but it all became clear when I actually started playing out with the Bassman. Turning it up really loud and just gently overdriving the front was like having a whole new amp. Problem is, forty-five watts is pretty loud for the places I play. But I think the lesson here is to play an amp in all kinds of situations before you write it off as not being the amp for you.

    posted on June 8, 2011 at 11:41 pm
  9. Telenator says:

    As a former editor and journalist, I want to say first of all that your articles are extremely well-written guides to all things guitar. My only criticism is that I wish they were much longer, as these rate as some of the best mail I receive each month. Today I can hear my 6L6s start to warm and overdrive as I read along. I trust you will stick to topics of this sort—the nuts and bolts of guitar tone—and not ramble off into philosophies and the tangential nonsense that tends to creep into some writers’ columns over time. And this request may border on the extremely technical, but could you research and report about some of the various “holy grail” amplifier circuits that have been designed through the years and give us some idea of what makes certain ones produce their highly sought-after tones. I’m thinking particularly regarding certain of the Fender blackface and the best tweed Bassman design and, of course, the Marshall Plexi, the “Jump Panel” and the original Vox AC-30s. Without going too deeply into resistors and cap types, what makes them produce those magic, classic tones?

    posted on June 8, 2011 at 11:55 pm
  10. Joe says:

    Great article, but when you were talking about the EL84, did you mean it was the basis of the Liverpool tone?  When most people talk about Leeds, they Live at Leads, an album featuring crunchy EL34 amps.  When people talk about Liverpool they mean the Beatles’ Vox chime.

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 1:19 am
  11. JPH says:

    Excellent article Andy. Thanks

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 1:41 am
  12. Shango says:

    “Don’t you know that red tolex sounds different than black?” LMAO!! That was good! :)

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 1:41 am
  13. robert smtih says:

    I think stating that power tubes are mostly responsible for the voicing of an amp is a huge oversimplification. The clean tone of an amp has far more to do with the filtering, number of gain stages, rectifier type, OT, speakers and speaker cab than the power tube type. Overdriven tone gets a little more murky, but as someone has pointed out, the power tubes are still only a small part of the equation with PI, preamp configuration and the other steps mentioned above.

    As proof of this, let’s take the Fender Bassman. The tweed version is a typical Fender tweed amp with a hard attack, rich mids but emphasized top end and bass. The JTM45 that Marshall derived from it initially used KT66s which sound VERY similar to 6L6s and yet the amps don’t sound a lot alike. Make the transition to a plexi tubed with KT66s (most have EL34s, but bear with me) and it’s a completely different sounding amp. That comes down to a different tone stack, cabinet, speakers, OT etc.

    So, bottom line, if you want to turn your Fender into a Marshall, it’s going to take more than rebiasing for KT77s or EL34s. Changing speakers, cabs and preamp tubes might go a longer way to changing the sound!

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 1:55 am
  14. Abbacus says:

    RE: ” (don’t you know that red Tolex sounds different than black?) ” Did Eric Johnson ghost-write this article?

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 1:59 am
  15. Mike Oliver says:

    Andy,

    Thanks for the articles!

    For a related article, could you offer your perspective on the pro’s and con’s of power amp attenuators and brakes for winding up the power output tubes without blowing yourself off stage? Thanks!

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 2:22 am
  16. David Klaber says:

    Is there anyone out there that can tell me how to approach tube mods for my 333.  I’m curious about how to get a more proportionate sweep of the treble and presence controls.  I would like to try a tube with a LOT more top end so that it will load that circuit earlier.  I have the JCA 20H.  The stock 20H is a 2 el84, 3 12ax7 amp featuring a soldano slo Treble, Middle, Bass tone stack with a Presence control in the Power Amp.  Its mainly the presence control that I have the issue with.  Any suggestions?

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 2:41 am
  17. Taffy says:

    thanks again, Andy. i’ve been running my handmade stereo guitar head with kt88s (the builder’s choice) and the sound just, well, sucks. now i have a much better idea of what output tubes will give me the sound and power i’m looking for. cheers!

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 3:02 am
  18. TC says:

    Thanks for the article,I was reading about this last night as I’m having a amp custom made.I feel like the best source for any piece of gear anymore is either a good builder,vintage,or Proguitarshop.Seriously,PGS carries 9/10 of the new gear I would want,and many handmade guitars,amps,fx.
    And while not getting technical,short articles such as this,as well as info and specs on the site (and videos),are great for spreading knowledge and creating a more educated guitar community.I’ve certainly found ways to better and expand my rig.
    Alas,the dark ages of gear are over.PGS rocks.And rolls.All night long.

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 3:30 am
  19. jason41224 says:

    great article, but i do disagree that the power tubes have the biggest impact on tone in an amp. that falls squarely on the shoulders of the circuit itself, not to mention the transformers. they do have an impact, but take an amp like the Orange Rockerverb. Mk1 had 6V6s, the Mk2 has EL34s. there’s a slight tonal change, but it’s still a Rockerverb.

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 4:31 am
  20. Mike Anderson says:

    Great article on Tube Amps. Short sweet and to the point. Thanks.

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 5:44 am
  21. Will Hicks says:

    Great Article Andy. I agree with those above. With my Li’l Dawg Mutt (Fender champ/deluxe mongrel) I have tried all sorts of new and vintage 6V6s and 12AX7s and 12AT7s, and simply put its the preamp tubes that change the sound the most.

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 5:46 am
  22. Daniel says:

    Great article!

    My Orange RV50 (6V6) and Vox AC30hw (EL84) are indeed different animals.  Though the Orange does somehow retain some “Brittishness” despite the 6V6s, it does have a much roomier bottom, and with a chunk of preamp gain it gives me such a cool classic 70’s sound. 

    On the other hand, the sound of the AC30 at about 3 o’clock literally makes me salavate, and pushes my sound back in time like the loudest 30 watt time machine ever.  Oh how I do love that amp.

    One thing to be said about the shorter life of the EL84s is at least you can change them out yourself!  Sometimes my Orange sits until I have the time and $ to take it to a tech to get the bias adjusted for the new tubes.

    Cheers!

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 6:37 am
  23. Morgan says:

    Always enjoy these articles and this is no exception. However, I gotta echo sentiments already expressed by some others regarding the line “In my opinion, the power tubes play the largest part in voicing an amplifier.” Now, of course I’m not arguing with your opinion; rather, I disagree based on personal experience from building quite a few amps and fixing quite a few more.

    I was going to type of a lengthy explanation of all this with a whole slew of awesome points and all that, but instead I’ll just quote Bruce Egnater: “While we’re on the subject of the Rebel, there has been some talk about how, when panning from the 6V6 tubes to the EL84 tubes, the tone difference is not what some expected. It is believed that by simply changing power tubes you can make a Fender (6L6 power tubes) sound like a Marshall (EL34 power tubes) or a Vox (EL84 power tubes). What you are hearing in the Rebel when you go from 6V6 to EL84 is the real difference in the sound of those two types of tubes. It may not be quite as dramatic as many believe but that is the reality of it. The tonal difference between various types of tubes is more subtle than many believe. A few people have even been disappointed when using the TUBE MIX features because their expectations of what should happen were really not based in fact. The intangible characteristic is the change in “feel” between different types of tubes. These subtle differences do become more apparent at higher volume when the power tubes are “pushed” a little more into overloading. What you are hearing in the Rebel is “the truth” about power tubes.”

    The relative difference in power tubes is not as great as many player are lead to believe.

    Great work on this site! Please keep the articles coming!

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 7:20 am
  24. Paul Angle says:

    I switch from EL4s and 6L6/5881s all the time in my V3 head. A really great sounding head by the way. Tube Bias is easy as their is a select switch which alters the main voltage and path changes and you just tune in the trim adjust to 100 on your meter. Changing tubes is simple, be sure to unplug and discharge the caps by switching power on when unplugged. You have to be careful when powered up and inside checking voltage levels. Not hard but not a place for stupids or bumble heads. I really have a hard time trying to pick a fav. Both sound killer in my rig. I tend to favor Tung Sol tungs via thetubestore.com also great chart comparison of tube makers and quality. There is a lot of myth out there about tubes, pays not to take in too much “Fox news” crap and get the real skinny. Great article as usual Andy! Makes some more TonePrints for the TCs man!!!!

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 9:22 am
  25. jimmy creeden says:

    It always stuns me when a writer is so talented that he/she can put into as
    few words as possible,so much information. Andy,you are one of those people. It’s my first time reading your work,and i really learned a bit more about power tubes than I knew before reading! Please keep it up!

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 10:36 am
  26. Bluto says:

    Very nice Andy . Keep it coming my friend .

    posted on June 9, 2011 at 11:35 am
  27. Fortified says:

    Thanks, but I am more curious about the obscure types. Maybe a future article?

    posted on June 11, 2011 at 8:38 am
  28. Bruce Clement says:

    Power tubes only play a huge role in the tone (or “character” or what I like to call the “voice”) of the amp when they are pushed into overdrive.  When operating in their linear region, different tube types sound very similar.

    posted on June 12, 2011 at 10:18 am
  29. Dean says:

    Great “meat and potato article. Coincides with the amps I’ve owned, modded or built. I wish someone would put out a headroom chart on available tubes. For intsance I want higher headroom when I retube my Vox AC30C2 but on-line tube sellers are scetchy on the subject.

    posted on June 12, 2011 at 2:20 pm
  30. Rich says:

    Thanks for a great posting.  I’ve just acquired a rebel 20 with a dual set of power tubes and this really helps it all make sense (I’ve always played modelling amps before).  I can’t wait to get a chance to really try and get a feel for the power amp overdrive.

    posted on June 13, 2011 at 11:03 pm
  31. Keith says:

    Jeff Thomas:
    You won’t get electrocuted if you don’t dig into the guts.  If you’re just removing the rear grill to access the tubes, you’ll be just fine.  That said, if you’re not sure about which tubes are compatible with your amp, leave it to the pros, but don’t be excessively afraid.  The amps are designed to have the rear grill removed for tube access and as long as you dig no deeper, there are no lethal voltages exposed to be afraid of.

    John Duffy (and others)
    Couldn’t agree more.  Andy’s got amazing talent for simplifying the complex.. and injecting humor at the same time.  Thanks Andy!

    As to the topic itself, the reference to Bruce Egnator and others who’ve commented about the preamp tubes role, I would agree with all of these comments but say that it basically comes down to the fact that most of us play our amps at home or in our garage, or even small venues where you can’t take a 50 watt amp anywhere near the point where the power tubes saturate without giving everyone bleeding ears.  So, if all we know is what we hear at lower volume levels, we’re probably going to assume the pre-amp is the biggest factor.    Obviously, it’s all the components, and the circuit config (class A, A/B, etc), but the power tube’s contribution would likely only be noticeable to pro musicians playing in large venues where the power tubes can be pushed.  In other words, Angus, Eddie, and Pete could tell the difference but most of us hole-in-the-wall players, not so much.

    For those looking for some serious tube amp education, check out Gerald Kendrick’s DVD’s on tube amp design.  It’s pricey ($80) but it’s much easier than wading through any of his 4 books on the topic and you will learn about every component in the tube amp from the power supply all the way through the speaker.   

    Last comment (I PROMISE)... Sorry for the long post, but have to say that I really really really enjoy reading the comments as much as the articles… Andy.. you’ve got some pretty smart readers here!!  Rock on!

    posted on June 29, 2011 at 6:56 am
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