Psychedelia and Its Effects

October 4, 2012

By Daniel Brooks

Psychedelia was a synesthetic joyride, a heady, kaleidoscopic mix of youthful idealism, enhanced consciousness, free-range creativity and more than a little celebratory sensuality. The Psychedelic Counterculture had a brief but lasting effect on popular thought, spirituality, fashion, art, music and cultural norms. In the turbulent 1960s, a time when everything was anything but certain, Psychedelia offered a longing look back to a half-imagined Victorian idyll, a colorful expression of an emerging consciousness that differed, substantially, from a questionable mainstream culture, and an inspired look forward to a long hoped-for world of our highest ideals. It may have been as imperfect as any other set of beliefs that promise a better world, but it did give voice to more than its share of genuine inspiration. It wasn’t necessarily stoned, but it was beautiful. It was psychedelic. 

 Psychedelic music was a sonic boom for the baby boom, the soundtrack to a coming of age party for a whole generation that sought to question, experiment, and reinvent everything handed down by the previous generation. It often featured fantastic lyrics that conveyed some whimsical, surreal, cosmic or psychotropic inspiration. An aura of supernatural mystique was frequently achieved through instrumentation and compositional elements borrowed from classical and world music influences, and atmospheric keyboard sounds such as the mellotron, organ and harpsichord. Psychedelic albums such as The Beatles’ “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band,” The Zombies’ “Odessey and Oracle,” Traffic’s “Mr. Fantasy” and the Rolling Stones’ “Their Satanic Majesties Request” expanded the definition of pop and rock music by going far beyond the standard sounds of guitar, bass, drums and voice. 

Of course, with the mind-expanding experimentation that inspired most musicians, instrumental breaks took on a life of their own, becoming as much a featured element of a song as the actual vocal parts, and often lasting much longer. Guitarists, especially, took on the relatively unexplored role of musical alchemist with song structures designed to make the most of experimental studio techniques and a handful of new electronic gadgets designed to expand the simple sound of an amplified guitar into unexplored creative territories.

It may seem strange today that such a colorful world of sound was created with so few effects, but in the hands of the inspired, a few good tools are enough. Of the many sonic adventures that lent their day-glo colors to record stores and radios in 1967, Pink Floyd’s debut album “The Piper at the Gates of Dawn” defines Psychedelia as well as any mentioned here. Victorian literary references, masterful pop composition, a generous layer of Rick Wright’s Farfisa and Hammond organs, and Syd Barrett’s inimitable voice and creative presence worked to create a masterpiece. And yet all of the guitar sounds were accomplished with nothing more than a custom Telecaster, an overdriven Selmer amp, a Binson Echorec and a Zippo lighter used as a slide.

One of the most influential and memorable psychedelic albums of the era was the absolutely innovative debut by the Jimi Hendrix Experience titled “Are You Experienced.” Working primarily with a Stratocaster (he used a borrowed Telecaster on “Purple Haze” and a Les Paul on “Red House”) and a Marshall Stack (or two, or three) Jimi Hendrix got the attention of every guitarist in the world with his fundamentally new approach to the instrument’s creative potential. 

Effects boxes were still a new concept when Hendrix first started recording, and his collection of tools was simple, a Dallas-Arbiter Fuzz Face for that gritty, textured sound, and Roger Mayer’s frequency doubling pedal called the Octavia, both of which can be heard on “Purple Haze.” Ever eager to expand his sonic vocabulary, he used more effects on later albums, most notably the Vox Wah pedal whose sound he made entirely his own on “Voodoo Chile,” and the Leslie Rotating speaker with which he got that ethereal warble on “Little Wing,” which he later achieved live with a UniVox Univibe. His studio mastery was equally innovative, with the backward guitar solo on “Castles Made of Sand” and the manual flanging heard on “Bold As Love” leading the way for the creation of some of today’s staple effects. You have to wonder what he would have done with the brilliant effects available to us now. 

It may be that the unusually high level of creativity expressed in Psychedelia was just unsustainable. It may be that it is the nature of artists to evolve and seek new creative realms. It may be that tragic events such as the death of Meredith Hunter at the Stones’ Altamont concert, the Manson Family murders or the decline of Syd Barrett, Brian Wilson, Peter Green and others into “acid casualties,” all led to a backlash against the Hippie movement that many associated with Psychedelia. But for these and other reasons, Psychedelia ceased to be a creative form by the end of the1960s. The Stones and the Beatles went back to their earthier rock roots, The Zombies, Cream, Traffic and, eventually, the Beatles, all broke up. Traffic and Pink Floyd each reformed and, like several other former psychedelic bands, evolved into Progressive Rock. But the musical innovations brought about during that all too brief period remain part of the vocabulary of western pop music. Bands like XTC, Olivia Tremor Control, Apples in Stereo, Prince, Lenny Kravitz and many others have drawn inspiration from the Psychedelic Era to create some of their fans’ favorite work. Who knows, as with all things, it may very well come around again.


  1. Nicholas Viens says:

    Tame Impala, best modern-day psychedelic band.

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 3:58 am
  2. Sonic Nights says:

    I do think that history repeats itself in many cases, but I don’t believe this time period will happen again, especially not in the same way it did in the 1960’s. Psych drugs were not frowned upon in those days, as the consequences were not yet out in the open. Today, people are much wiser, knowing the results, and steering clear from use or extended use of these drugs that damage the brian moving forward.

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 4:01 am
  3. Tgalea says:

    New wave psych music is already growing massively, I was at a psychedelics festival this weekend talking to some guys who were there back in the 60’s and they were saying how other the last year or so they’ve seen a explosion of interest!

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 4:13 am
  4. johnince says:

    Well written and still relevant as a topic of discussion. I was there and was not amused by stupid behavior by adolesent raging hormones in the street. But the creativity that burst forth in music propelled our ablites into a new mind set of cultural permissions. Culture said no, we said yes and the explorations and results were only beginning to blossom when the drug culture became the feared item in parental minds and ultra conservatives, with no memory of history, closed this chapter into a footnote of American history. The seeds though are growing everywhere in music.
    The World music scene is new in American music, but the cross pollenation is evident in acoustic, thinking of John Fahey’s Raga’s and other experiments like tape overdubs, Electric guitar thinking of Michael Brooks and his cooperative compositions with Middle Eastern Masters,
    African and Albanian Masters, Ry Cooder’s work and others are now bedrock music that can’t be unremembered as Acid Jazz and other new contemporary music borrows from this blend.
    As for drugs, right now research is finding the rightful uses for this approach in psychriatric therapy. The benefits for cancer patients and mental war injuries as well as near death states is beyond question for the knowlegable and open minded researcher.
    My apology for the typos,spelling errrors, but my five year old calls…

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 4:33 am
  5. John Ince says:

    I forgot to mention Classical music, Minimalism and the new abstractions, iterations like Ambient,
    ie Brian Eno, Phillip Glass, Riech , Feldman, Alvo Part, ....

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 4:37 am
  6. marcel says:

    Also, you might like Uncle Acid And The Deadbeats (their best album is named Blood Lust) - Dense warm-fuzzy guitars, psychedelic sound reminiscent from Black Sabbath’s riffing. Great band.

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 4:44 am
  7. Chazz says:

    I hear echoes of Psychedelic in a lot today, most notably the “Goth” type music (Sisters of Mercy, Tea Party, even some of Avril Lavigne’s work). Glad I was there!

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 4:49 am
  8. Taffy says:

    i started with a 4-track, an electric framus, a dod analog delay and some weird solid-state markley amp. and en electro-voice mic that was hard-wired with a 1/4” cable.

    i think psychedelic music had a lot to do with pushing the boundaries with limited tools, and that psychedelic music continued to thrive, as prog-rock, post-punk, post-rock, new wave, bliss-rock, dirge-rock and shoegaze. hell - even american indie of the late-80s early-90s, like green apple quick step and mazzy star.

    the idealism is what died, not the music, spirit or innovation. the 70s were a big comedown/burnout. but music kept being. despite the global hangover.

    most of the time when people ask me what kind of music i play, i tend to throw psychedelic in there… i miss the 90s, when the ‘alternative’ banner was apt and quite suitable…

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 5:09 am
  9. Jim H says:

    There is still great psych influenced music being created these days, but the real defining difference in the psych music and movement of the 1960s was that they were breaking out of a period of intense conformity and social stagnation that controlled American culture in the 1950s. That type of repressive environment was a huge reason for the incredible outpouring of wildness and free-form creativity the mid 60s is known for.

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 6:23 am
  10. Donny Payjack says:

    I don’t know about the rest of the country, but “Psych” is very much alive and well down here in Austin, TX…  international psych superstars “the Black Angels” host a 3 day festival that is in its 5th year, and they have bands coming from all over the country flying their freak flag high, and their reverb settings higher.  Dead Meadow, Brian Jonestown Massacre, Night Beats, Strange Attractors, etc.  etc. etc.  Psych-rocking is definitely where it’s at!!!

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 6:24 am
  11. luis says:

    Yo forget one of the most common name of Psychedelia: 13th FLOOR ELEVATORS

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 6:26 am
  12. Mancuso says:

    13th Floor Elevators is one of the greatest and pionner: dated August 1966
    Hardcore psychedelia: Capitan Beefheart, The Crazy World of Arthur Brown, Red Crayola, Frank Zappa and his The Mothers of Invention, The Fugs
    Commercial psychedelia: Jefferson Airplane, Traffic, Soft Machine, Cream, The Byrds, Iron Butterfly, Love, Spirit, Electric Prunes, Blues Magoos, Vanilla Fudge

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 6:42 am
  13. Mancuso says:

    From Wikipedia:

    electric guitars, often used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzboxes
    elaborate studio effects, such as backwards tapes, panning, phasing, long delay loops, and extreme reverb
    exotic instrumentation, with a particular fondness for the sitar and tabla
    a strong keyboard presence, especially organs, harpsichords, or the Mellotron (an early tape-driven ‘sampler’)
    extended instrumental solos or jams
    complex song structures, key and time signature changes, modal melodies and drones
    primitive electronic instruments such as synthesizers and the theremin
    lyrics that made direct or indirect reference to drugs, as in Jefferson Airplane’s “White Rabbit” or Jimi Hendrix’s “Purple Haze”
    surreal, whimsical, esoterically or literary-inspired, lyrics.

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 6:46 am
  14. Jay says:

    While there are many modern neo-psych bands like Spacemen 3, Tame Impala, and the Black Angels that kind of bring that old sense back in a new modern form i think the fundamental sonic concepts of psych music have remained in music ever since the 60s.  Genre’s like dream pop, shoegazing, ambient, space rock, noise pop, forms of electronic, etc.  have a psych influence.  I think it’s really interesting when people mesh these genres.  Hell, even alternative bands like The Smashing Pumpkins, MBV, or Radiohead, get trippy as all get out despite being “grunge”, shoegaze, or britpop.

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 7:14 am
  15. Ed Brenton says:

    To Mancusco and Wikipedia… Purple Haze was not about drugs. It was Jimi’s description of a parachute jump. The coloration evolved from his very fertile mind.
    I’m not saying he didn’t write about drugs or maybe while “on drugs”, but too many have misinterpreted and missed the point of his writings.

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 8:03 am
  16. Julian bento says:

    There are some great bands out there fusing psychedelia with other genres! A lot are using 70s guitar sounds too, really analogue sounding, it’s great! 
    My favourites are tame impala, warpaint and black mountain! 

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 8:46 am
  17. Hugh Mann says:

    I CANNOT believe that this article on the psychedelic period of the 60’s has absolutely no mention of Roky Erickson OR the 13th Floor Elevators. They coined the term psychedelic rock, for god’s sake, and were basically the first psych band ever. Shame shame.

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 8:47 am
  18. KCB says:

    60s had much to do with seeking a spiritual reality which didn’t have materialism as its footprint

    the self destruction of most cults - hindu, buddhist, islamic, personality driven, has helped kill that notion

    some people still seek a different nodality, but there aren’t viable alternatives to the drug induced inspirations which served people before

    the clean acid of the grateful dead era is over, research chems are pushing a morphagenic field towards an unsupportable state of vision

    dmt doesn’t equate

    people haven’t really induced kundalini with all their yoga centers and orgies

    nobody in the world has overcome materiality

    hate is ever on the rise and xenophobia is growing at the same rate as world communication speeds up

    music is fractured into a million small interests, only a few genres still cohere many people

    in retrospect the 60s never were, we have but a few memories of what we wished they might have been, but short of any lasting impact on the day to day they were just a dream, and for the ones who bad tripped too many times, a nightmare

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 9:48 am
  19. zerf says:

    Don’t forget “The Bluethings” from Kansas and my other fave “Mad River”

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 11:44 am
  20. Scott P. says:

    I thought that this article would have to do with how the effects, of say the sixties, have caused the evolution of today’s effects.The multicolored pedal that caused me to flip to this article, is actually a new distortion pedal, made by ‘Rock Box’, Called the ‘Boiling Point’, and is one of the most incredible distortion pedals on the market today! I have one in my pedalboard, and the tone options you can get from it are limitless. It’s a little pricey( $385), but it’s worth it. To be honest, the way guitar and amp co’s. have inflated their pricepoints to the point that you can’t afford a top-rated instrument or amp, the price of this pedal is not bad ,considering the quality…

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 1:05 pm
  21. papolla says:

    I said Causa Sui

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 9:13 pm
  22. Mauricio says:

    would like to mention Kevin shields of My bloody valentine

    posted on October 5, 2012 at 10:09 pm
  23. Guy says:

    Roky Erickson and the 13th Floor Elevators deserve another mention plus Dennis Wilson’s amazing solo work ‘Pacific Ocean Blue, especially as all their influence continue to be heard in contemporary bands.

    This can particularly be found in the music of the mightily accomplished Spiritualized, where Jason Spaceman continues to produce a remarkable and unique fusion of psychedelia with ambient minimalism, blues and Spector-esque epic grandeur, alongside both veiled and explicit drug references in the music, lyrics and even the album artwork and packaging.

    posted on October 7, 2012 at 11:10 am
  24. The Telenator says:

    I must throw in the band Strawberry Alarmclock and their hit “Incense, Peppermint,” which just happened to be the very first record I ever bought, as a 45 rpm single. The article, even though quite brief, is extremely well-written and was a joy to read. Many of the comments puzzle me—all sorts of bizarre and incorrect assessments of the period by many who were born decades later and have no idea what those times were like or what they are talking about. Also, there was a concerted effort to bring back some of this that got labeled the “Psychedelic Movement” that ran from roughly ‘83 through about ‘88. Younger players had a real zeal for it for a while, and those of us a little older were in it partly to satisfy our nostalgia of that imperfect yet magical time.

    posted on October 7, 2012 at 4:58 pm
  25. Tony says:

    There are a TON of bands out there RIGHT NOW incorporating Psychedelic elements into their music… but of course, they are far from the mainstream music scene, like their forefathers. 

    People NEED to check out bands like Dead Meadow(songs: “Sleepy Silver Door”, “Beyond The Fields We Know”), The Devils Blood(songs: “The Thousandfold Epicentre”, “Everlasting Saturnalia”), Electric Wizard(songs: “Eko Eko Azerak”, “Saturn’s Children”) and especially Earthless, an instrumental band whose guitarist Isaiah Mitchell seriously should be on the cover of EVERY guitar magazine out there.  Let me put it this way - Jimi Hendrix would totally dig him!  Their live album “Live at Roadburn” is an absolute masterpiece of the psychedelic guitar jam.

    posted on October 7, 2012 at 5:40 pm
  26. zerf says:

    Watch “Rockin’ At The Red Dog the Dawn of Pschedelic Rock”
    An interesting look at the time before the so-called “Summer Of Love”
    when self respecting proto-freaks still enjoyed packin’ heat..

    posted on October 8, 2012 at 3:11 am
  27. Kyle says:

    There are some indie bands today that are real creative with their effects, just look at The Antlers or El Ten Eleven. Lots and lots of effects there.

    posted on October 9, 2012 at 12:10 am
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  29. Robert says:

    Please check out today’s touring Psychedelic band ” Pipe Dreams” on
    I’m sure you’ll love their take on all the music from that era!

    posted on October 9, 2012 at 1:01 am
  30. Christiaan says:

    Motorpsycho from Norway is worthy to be checked out!
    For example:
    Motorpsycho - Un Chien d’Espace
    Motorpsycho - Have Spacesuit, Will Travel

    posted on October 9, 2012 at 2:49 am
  31. Splatt says:

    Anyone wanting to know more about psychedelic music, into the present day, should check out Jim DeRogatis’ excellent “Turn On Your Mind,” a book which looks at psychedelic rock from its origins to the present. If you do, you’ll find the music is alive and, if not well, having a wonderful time. Thanks to all those who gave heads-ups (so to speak) for new bands into gleefully melting young (or otherwise) minds. Fortunately for those of us who enjoy such efforts, guitarists and other musicians have more tools than ever for twisting, turning, and warping sounds and audiences’ expectations.

    posted on October 9, 2012 at 4:16 am
  32. Bill says:

    Best solo psychedelic artist -

    posted on October 9, 2012 at 4:24 am
  33. The Telenator says:

    I really had no idea it was still going on like this and so popular. That first real resurgence I mentioned in the ‘80s was fun, but it wasn’t like some major onslaught or anything—just something cool to do at the time.

    posted on October 9, 2012 at 4:31 am
  34. The Telenator says:

    Hey, I just remembered—I used to have the awesome Spirit album called “The 12 Dreams of Dr. Sardonicus.” The band featured the one and only Randy California on guitar. Bought it by accident sort of, but it had some incredible songs on it. Got stuck playing one side over and over one night on a turntable in a friend’s basement that would shock the crap out of you if you touched it. That was a very strange night. Uh . . . Oh, no. . . Flashback.

    posted on October 9, 2012 at 4:41 am
  35. Tony says:

    the EXCELLENT documentary “Such Hawks Such Hounds” is a fantastic look at the so-called ‘stoner rock’ movement, featuring bands such as Dead Meadow, Pentagram, Sleep, High on Fire, Fatso Jetson, Earthless, Om, Sunn O))), Kyuss, and others.  It also has lots of live footage as well.  (it can be found in it’s entirety on youtube)

    posted on October 9, 2012 at 4:14 pm
  36. The Telenator says:

    One thing about this whole area—everyone/everything has a really cool name or title.

    TONY, is Stoner really the same bunch or close connected, though? Even the couple of Stoner presets I’ve run into on a pedal I have and elsewhere sounds sort of OTHER than psychedelic.

    posted on October 9, 2012 at 4:27 pm
  37. Tony says:

    Telenator - it just depends on how it’s used… alot of bands might use the same gear, fuzz boxes, reverbs, tape delays, etc., but be classified as ‘doom metal’, or ‘shoegaze’.  Kyuss, for example, are considered stoner or ‘desert’ rock, but their albums have DEFINITE psychedelic properties.  Fu Manchu, on the other hand, while using similar gear, are much more upbeat almost skate punk, but still in that ‘stoner rock’ genre as well.  So again, it just depends on how it’s used…

    Here’s a definite example of psychedelic stoner rock: “Dead Meadow live at Roadburn”

    posted on October 9, 2012 at 5:19 pm
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  41. Craig Wiper says:

    I was there, in the midst of the Haight-Ashbury scene. Can’t remember much from back then anymore. Very hazy… Had a lot of fun though, and saw all of the major acts at the time. Even opened for Country Joe & The Fish when I was 13. Groovy man…

    posted on October 12, 2012 at 12:44 am
  42. Kevin Cooney says:

    One note. You leave the impression that Hendrix recorded with Marshall stacks in the studio. Highly doubtful, especially on the first album. To my ears, much of the album sounds Fender clean with added effects.


    posted on October 12, 2012 at 2:21 am
  43. Tony says:

    some more NEW psychedelic bands to check out are:

    The Cosmic Dead
    Shocking Fuzz
    Cosmic Wheels
    The Myrrors

    posted on October 12, 2012 at 4:02 am
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    The Pretty Things’  SF Sorrow is a lost psychedelic masterpiece. Recorded at the same time as Floyd’s Pipers & has the same producer -Norman Smith. Check it out.

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