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Mother Nature’s Sonics – Acoustic Tonewoods

November 29, 2012

By Daniel Brooks


Regardless of what kind of guitar you play, or what you play on it, the quality of sound you have at your fingertips depends on only a handful of factors. The type of guitar, the model, your choice of pickups, pedals, amps, strings and picks, and your technique itself, all of these have an immediate effect on the sounds available to you, the sonic ingredients from which you create your music. You can experiment with any or all of these as part of a lifelong quest for the sound that matches your inspiration, but you may find the search much more rewarding when you understand how much of your guitar’s tone is a direct result of the kind of wood from which it is made.

Electric and acoustic guitars both rely on the natural resonance of their wood for the quality of their tone, but each achieves their sound in significantly different ways. An electric guitar’s wooden body resonates with the strings’ vibrations to reflect, reinforce and conduct a signature pattern of frequencies, and the acoustic character of the wood has a significant influence on this aspect of the overall sound. But the electric guitar’s sound is malleable, the instrument itself is ultimately a platform for the strings and pickups to create an electric signal, which can be manipulated by effects and amp settings to alter the sound far beyond the subtle influence of the guitar’s tonewoods.

Tonewoods play a much more important role in an acoustic guitar’s volume and tone. The vibrating top and resonating body work together to serve as a natural amplifier for the strings, but also as a substantial part of the sound itself. The size, shape and construction of an acoustic guitar does play a significant role in both the tone and volume of the instrument. The laws of physics dictate that a greater mass achieves motion with a proportionally greater amount of energy, so, if all other factors are equal, a larger guitar with a larger top will project its resonant frequencies with greater volume than a smaller one, especially those lower frequencies that tend to contain more energy. For the same reason, smaller, lighter, more flexible tops will tend to reinforce the higher frequencies, creating a brighter tone. When it comes to acoustic guitars, size matters. But the kind of wood matters at least as much, if not more.

As a living, organic material, all woods are layered composites of plant cells with stiff, durable walls composed primarily of cellulose fiber and lignin. The structure, density, weight, strength and flexibility of these composites vary considerably from one species to another, and aren’t necessarily uniform among individuals of a species, or even among the various, functionally different parts of any individual tree. Each variation will absorb some frequencies, conduct and even reinforce others to create its own complex acoustic signature. These acoustic characteristics make a qualitative difference in the sound of any musical instrument they construct. Stiffer woods will sound brighter, more trebly, while denser woods will reinforce the lower bass frequencies for a deeper, darker sound.

As the strings vibrate, the tension put on the guitar’s wooden structures increases and decreases hundreds or thousands of times per second. As the top and body flex, however microscopically, in response to these changes in tension, they compress and decompress the air around the guitar to create their own sound waves. You can experiment with this by putting your hand on the top of a guitar while someone else plays it. As your hand absorbs the vibrations from the wood, two things will be immediately perceptible, you’ll be able to physically feel the music, and the vibrations lost to your hand will leave the remaining tone of the guitar relatively muffled. The vibrating wood is making a substantial part of the sound. If you are a musician, or a luthier, it matters what kind of wood your guitar is made of.

A high-quality, professional instrument will have a top made of solid wood. Many lower priced guitars will have a top and sides of laminated wood, a composite of two, three or more thin layers of cheaper wood glued together with a visually appealing veneer. Because of the glue and the conflicting acoustic properties of the layers, laminate wood rarely vibrates freely enough to create a good, open sound. You may find the occasional ply-top guitar with a sound worth buying, if the price is low-enough, but in the long run, it is worth the extra money to buy a solid top guitar. You will find ever-increasing satisfaction as the wood ages and the sound of the instrument continues to open up into a richer tone.

The most common tonewood is spruce. It is light, very strong for its weight and it conducts vibrations with high velocity for outstanding clarity and volume across a broad spectrum of frequencies, giving it a rich, balanced tone. It doesn’t add any overtones to the sound, so notes won’t necessarily bloom at lower volumes, but it will deliver all of the sound without getting in the way, even when strummed vigorously. Sitka Spruce, from Alaska, is most common, but Englemann, (or European Spruce) and Adirondack (or Eastern Red Spruce) are also well known. All three have a tight, regular grain, with a light cream color that tends to yellow slightly as it ages. Adirondack tends to be a little heavier and stiffer, and therefore slightly louder and brighter, than Sitka, which in turn is a little more so than Englemann, but each makes a fine top to any acoustic guitar intended for all-around use. Spruce continues to mature as it ages, developing its own extraordinarily harmonic tone as the decades unfold.

Cedar has long been the traditional tonewood for classical guitar tops, but it is growing in popularity for steel strung guitars, especially among fingerstyle players. Much less dense and stiff than spruce, Cedar responds nicely to less vigorous playing styles with rich overtones that lend considerable character to the fundamental notes for a warm, complex tone. With a very fine grain, a rich color that ranges from a honey brown to a red cinnamon, and a pleasant scent, Cedar has a deeply satisfying beauty to match its sound. It tends to get muddy if pushed too hard by intense strumming, so it isn’t as versatile, but it is strongly preferred by some guitarists who love its tonal quality. It matures very quickly as it ages, delivering the complex tones of an older, vintage guitar much more quickly than spruce.

Mahogany is usually used more for backs and sides, but you can find old guitars with mahogany tops nearly a hundred years old. It’s a stiff, dense, hard wood with a punchy attack and a rich, dark woody sound that lends itself well to folk, delta blues and roots music. It is also magnificently beautiful, with dark red-brown color and a short, complex and very dark grain pattern. It ages slowly, takes much longer to for its tone to bloom into maturity, but it continues to gain tonal depth with ever-increasing overtones, as anyone who has ever played an old mahogany-topped guitar will emphatically tell you. It is also ideal for back and sides where it lends substantial depth and volume.

Except for the occasional custom build, Rosewood is the most common wood used exclusively for backs and sides (and fretboards, of course). Like mahogany, it is a stiff, dense, hard wood with a high sound velocity, warm, rich overtones and powerful highs and lows that just make your guitar sound bigger. Among the most beautiful of the woods, rosewood has a rich, deep red or deep brown color with a dark dramatic grain. By far, the most common variety is East Indian Rosewood. Brazilian Rosewood has become nearly impossible to obtain, due to its rarity and the legal and financial difficulties of its trade, and has been elevated to near mythic status for its “legendary” quality of tone.

Maple is a light colored, very tight grained visual treat that is often chosen as much for its spectacular beauty as it is for its sound. It is a very heavy, dense wood with impressive sustain and virtually no overtones that lends a very bright, snappy, almost percussive sound to a guitar. Some find it ideal for live performances, especially for cutting through an ensemble with volume and clarity.

In addition to these traditional woods, some guitar makers have begun exploring alternatives, with some surprising results. Sapele can be found on an increasing number of guitars. Often referred to as African Mahogany, though it is not immediately related, Sapele has a look and sound that resembles mahogany with a bit of treble brightness. Koa is a tropical hardwood with an exotic look and all of the brightness of maple and the well-defined middle tone of mahogany. These, along with Ovangkol, Ebony, Blackwood, Cocobolo, Walnut and dozens of other exotic tonewoods will ensure that the rich variety of acoustic guitar tones will continue to be rewarding landscape ripe for exploration by the coming generations of both musicians and luthiers.

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  3. Cliff Lang says:

    Good write-up, very informative, especially the last paragraph about some of the tonewoods currently emerging and becoming more common.
    A similar article could be written just about fretboards, especially on electrics. The differences between maple, ebony, rosewood and whatever other varieties are used are significant; I have definite preferences in this department and most experienced players would probably say likewise.

    posted on December 1, 2012 at 1:30 am
  4. Joe K says:

    Good article.

    In an acoustic guitar, the right woods and construction mean everything.

    In an electric guitar, in spite of what some people think, I believe the electronics, strings and setup mean everything. The body, fretboard, and neck woods are there for playability and looks, not sound. Do the woods make a difference on electric guitars? Yes, everything makes a difference. Do tone woods make an electric guitar sound better? Hell no. They might of course, but there is just as good a chance a poor-sounding unplugged electric guitar will sound better when plugged in. than one acoustically rich. (a Vintage Guitar magazine comparison of ‘59 Les Pauls is one example. The worst one acoustically was the best one through an amp.)

    Electric builders - sorry
    Electric players - don’t believe the hype

    posted on December 1, 2012 at 2:50 am
  5. TerryAre says:

    Cocobolo is the next best thing (or maybe even better) to Brazilian rosewood.  I have a Taylor 2012 Spring LTD 814ce with cocobolo back & sides. It sounds different but as good as my 27 (1985) year old Martin HD28 (indian rosewood b&s) that just gets better every year.

    posted on December 1, 2012 at 5:16 am
  6. Ed Brenton says:

    Great read and with over 40 years of playing experience, I agree that tone woods, even with solid body electric guitars, makes a significant difference.
    If you don’t believe that, then explain why you can go to your local shop and play various guitars of the same make and model and find one or two that just “speak to you” sonically.
    I firmly believe it’s because that specific piece of wood holds characteristics that are unique unto itself.
    This is why I am reluctant to play guitars in the store unless I’m planning to buy because once in a while you find a “keeper” whether you were looking or not. You know it is special and don’t want to leave it behind!

    posted on December 1, 2012 at 8:15 am
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  8. Kjetil Sangen says:

    It’s a big mistake to assume wood type on an electric guitar doesen’t matter.

    It puzzles me when some say it does matter on an accoustic, but not on an electric.

    What is the difference between an accoustic and an electric guitar until the sound is amplified through a pickup and an amp?
    Basically the hole in the middle of the accoustic.
    Yes, the hole makes the guitar more resonant. But it is the exactly same thing that is happening on an electric and on an accoustic.
    There is only one way to make a sound on an electric or accoustic. The strings has to resonate through, and back and forth from the guitar body.
    The contribution from wood is taking part in shaping what’s coming back from the soundwaves created from the strings.

    If you have played enough guitars you get to know the characteristics of different type of woods.

    There is no way to swap a mahogny body with a swamp ash body and not notice any difference.

    And if you, as I have many times, tried different necks or bodies on the same guitars, you can (and will, most of the time) get very different sound even if you change bodies with the same bodywood.

    I think playing many different guitars for some time will train your abilty to recognize the general characteristics of different woods.

    posted on December 4, 2012 at 12:39 am
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  10. don says:

    Nice article and informative for those with little or much knowledge on types of woods and the tonal and resonant qualities of each. I would like to hear more about my above mentioned statement with regards to the information you provided in your last paragraph. Merry Christmas!

    posted on December 4, 2012 at 5:20 am
  11. Jonny says:

    there is a lot of talk these days and a lot of information regarding “Moon Wood”.
    Pretty interesting to me

    I believe it may have some merit due the the article published on this matter

    Here is just one article that alludes to “Moon Wood”
    http://www.tonewood.ch/moonwood.html

    posted on December 4, 2012 at 6:23 am
  12. Gary says:

    Robert Benedetto built an archtop out of pine that sounded awesome….sometimes it’s how it’s built instead of what it’s built with, some magical times it’s both…sometimes neither. I’ve heard several Martins that sounded like crap and several sound so good it gave me the chills, same with Taylor. Always remember, just because one acoustic guitar is louder than another doesn’t mean it sounds better…this is a trap many fall into. Body and neck woods can also make a considerable difference in electrics, not only sonically, but in sustain also, I have witnessed how the routing for and installation of a Floyd completely changed the tonality of a Les Paul, sure, some of the effect was from the lack of a solid contact between the bridge and the body, but some of it was from the loss of body mass also. That being said, let us not forget one of the coolest sounding electrics was made of Masonite!

    posted on December 4, 2012 at 8:39 am
  13. Kjetil Sangen says:

    Joe K.

    “Whilei t is true that the sound produced by an electric guitar is the result of ferromagnetic strings passing through a magnetic field,thesignalthatis produced in the magnetic field is a collection of frequency components that mirror string vibrations (fundamental and harmonic components); therefore, anything that affects string vibration affects the tone of an electric guitar.

    Different guitar designs have different response curves. While it is true that a large part of the response curve of any given electricisbounded by the frequency response and operational characteristics of its pickups(a.k.a. magnetic transducers), a Strat with a rosewood fingerboard does in fact have a different response curve than a Strat with a maple board. The difference can be felt and heard. The difference is due to the fact that a maple fingerboard attenuates high frequencies less than a rosewood board. As the alternating current signal that is produced by a guitar is a reflection of the frequencies at which the strings are vibrating and their associated amplitudes, anything that affects the amplitude of a frequency component affects the tone of an instrument when plugged into an amplification device.

    Q.E.D.”

    Why does a semi-hollow guitar sound so different than a regular electric, for instance? They use the same type of pickups. (with regards to not being å microphone type pickups).

     

    posted on December 4, 2012 at 8:46 am
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  15. Joe K says:

    Kjetil,

    First, your response is excellent. Thank you for posting it. I wish we and others could debate this in a forum that more people would see ;-)

    You make some good points, truly, and I learned something.

    Also, my limited engineering background still points to this: everything makes a difference, including wood, but “better” wood does not necessarily mean better guitar tone. I think it’s just that different woods give slightly different guitar tones. I.e., a piece of wood that the cork sniffing set will put to their ears, tap, and pronounce “this one has great acoustic tone” will NOT necessarily have a better electric tone than a random piece of wood. Just a different tone that may be more OR LESS pleasing.

    I go against the grain here, no pun intended, by saying that I do not think rosewood vs maple fretboard makes anywhere near the difference most people think. I have many of each and think the biggest difference is that rosewood holds up better and maple is less expensive to produce, which is why it was part of the earliest Fenders. Leo was not likely going for tone when he chose maple (and ash or alder bodies). He was going for what was local, available and affordable. It just turned out that those things did not hurt electric tone. They were part of giving an electric guitar awesome tones.

    >> Why does a semi-hollow guitar sound so different than a regular electric, for instance?

    I have each and again, don’t think there is a big difference. I was at the house of a large music store owner the summer and saw his fine, fine collection of guitars. He had lots of ES series guitars. I asked him if the tone was different that solid bodies and he said no, it is about having a larger guitar to hold and some people like that for aesthetics and comfort.. He added that a truly high volumes, sound waves from the amp react with the hollow wings of a semi-hollow guitar in a way that makes a unique sound. I buy that.

    posted on December 5, 2012 at 1:45 am
  16. Kjetil Sangen says:

    Joe K.

    Thanks for very interesting discussion.

    I agere with mist of what you have written above.

    Especially this:

    ” I think it’s just that different woods give slightly different guitar tones “

    If you have to good guitar bodies with different wood types, it might be very subtle differences, but I think guitarists or musicians in the general is spending most of their time searching for subtle differences. Be it in their sound or in improving in their ability to play. Small differences can make a decisive difference sometimes.

    I’ve included a link. I think its a very interesting one.

    http://www.frudua.com/sound_of_electric_guitar_wood.htm

    posted on December 5, 2012 at 10:06 am
  17. Kjetil Sangen says:

    (sorry for the spelling… Touch screen phones…
    It should read “if you have TWO good guitar bodies…”

    posted on December 5, 2012 at 10:10 am
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